Chapter 4. Sanitation and the environment

QuestionsLearning objectivesDownload
Module 4.1.
Cycles and flows of plant nutrients
How do plant nutrients and water flow in the biosphere? How have these flows been altered by Man? To be familiar with cycles of plant nutrients in nature and how various sanitation systems affect these cycles. ppt -
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Module 4.2.
Treatment of excreta for safe reuse
Is it safe to use treated faecal matter in the garden? How to treat urine and faeces for safe handling and reuse in crop cultivation. Co-treatment of organic materials from households. ppt -
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Module 4.3
Compost treatment
What happens in a compost? How is the material degraded and what are the end products like? Composting as a biological treatment of organic waste. Processes and the function of the system. ppt -
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Module 4.4
Biogas - a way to solve sanitation problems.
How much biogas can be produced from excreta and biomass? How safe is the process and its sludge? To understand the fundamental processes in biogas production, and get an overview of biogas generation in the world. ppt -
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Module 4.5.
Greywater is man-made
Greywater as a resource? What happens with used household chemicals? The role of households in tackling environmental and resource challenges. ppt -
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Module 4.6.
Greywater - processes
What compounds can be removed? How can Nature assist or react? To become familiar with basics of various physical, chemical and biological processes. ppt -
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Module 4.7.
Greywater treatment
Can we remove all the pathogens and heavy metals? What is in the sludge? Get familiar with various treatment options and with the application of various processes ppt -
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Module 4.8.
Excreta fertilisers in agriculture
How can ecological fertilisers from excreta best be used? Factors limiting yield. Functions of plant nutrients. Examples and recommendations. ppt -
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Module 4.9.
Environmental systems analysis
Can sanitation systems be compared fairly? How to measure impacts? System boundaries. Quantification of environmental effects and resource use. ppt -
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Module 4.10.
Comparisons of sanitation systems
How can a dry urine diverting toilet system be compared with a conventional system? Effects on water, climate and various resource use. Cost-benefit analysis. ppt -
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Total Chapter 4 download:
ppt - -- pdf -
Direct links to other chapters:
Ch1 Ch2 Ch3 Ch5